Mobile Internet

Technological Strategy

The comprehensive management of internet resources involves a multi-faceted approach. From accurately calculating bandwidth needs with advanced tools to employing hybrid connectivity for high availability, each component plays a vital role.

Meanwhile, the implementation of VPNs and robust cybersecurity measures are critical for ensuring the security and privacy of datacommunications.

Together, these strategies and technologies ensure that operations can maintain high levels of operational efficiency, safety, and security in an increasingly connected and digital world.

How to connect for optimal mobile coverage

4G/5G Networks:

Pros: Cost-effective, easy to install, and ideal for near-shore operations.
Cons: Limited coverage, especially in remote sea areas. Roaming charges can be exorbitant.
Best For: Coastal operations, small vessels, and near-shore activities.

VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal):

Pros: Offers more consistent coverage with a high-speed connection. Ideal for vessels requiring reliable and continuous internet access.
Cons: Higher initial setup and operational costs. Susceptible to weather conditions like heavy rain (rainfade).
Best For: Commercial shipping, offshore operations, and vessels requiring robust global connectivity.

LEO (Low Earth Orbit) Satellites:

Pros: Low latency, increasing global coverage, and potential for higher speeds.
Cons: Still in the developmental phase with fluctuating service availability.
Best For: Early adopters, vessels operating in areas covered by LEO networks.

L-Band/MSS (Mobile Satellite Services):

Pros: Widest coverage including polar regions, reliable albeit at lower speeds.
Cons: High costs, long-term contracts, and slower speeds compared to other satellite options.
Best For: Vessels traveling in extreme latitudes, emergency communications.

4G & 5G

Cellular Connectivity

3G, 4G, and 5G networks represent the evolution of mobile communications technologies, each offering increased speed, capacity, and efficiency over its predecessor.

In the context of maritime operations, these networks play a crucial role, especially in near-shore activities and for smaller vessels. Understanding their advantages and limitations is key to assessing their suitability for specific maritime needs.


Compared to satellite communication, 3G/4G/5G networks are generally more affordable although care needs to be taken in while roaming because some countries do have high roaming tariffs. Various data plan options are available, allowing for customization based on usage patterns and budget.

Ease of Installation

Requires minimal equipment, usually just a modem or a SIM card-enabled device. Quick and straightforward installation process, often a plug-and-play solution.

Ideal for Near-Shore Operations

Strong signal strength and high-speed data transfer near coastlines. Suitable for a range of operations including fishing, coastal trade, and leisure boating.

Limited Coverage

Coverage drops significantly as vessels move away from the shore or in less developed regions. Can be affected by geographical features like mountains or tall buildings near coastlines.

In high density areas where large amounts of cellular activity is present (e.g. Monaco, or some busy offshore locations) there can be limited bandwidth availability due to congestions and poor infrastructure.

Roaming Charges

Moving between different national waters can incur roaming charges, which can be prohibitively expensive.
Many standard plans have limitations on roaming, necessitating specialized maritime plans.

Coastal Operations

Ideal for operations within the coverage area, which usually extends up to a few dozen kilometers offshore.
Easily switch between land and sea networks, beneficial for vessels that frequently return to port.

Small Vessels

Smaller vessels may not have the space or resources for more complex communication systems like VSAT.
Smaller craft generally operate closer to shore and within network coverage areas.

Near-Shore Activities

Small fishing operations benefit from the cost-effectiveness and ease of use.
Yachts and small tour boats operating near shorelines can provide guests with reliable internet access.

3G/4G/5G networks are a practical and cost-effective solution for maritime operators who work primarily in coastal areas or near shorelines. They offer a balance of affordability, ease of installation, and adequate performance for a range of activities. However, their limited range and potential for high roaming charges in international waters are significant considerations.

Vessels that operate predominantly in remote or international waters may need to look at alternative communication systems, like satellite, to ensure consistent, reliable coverage. The choice of technology should be based on a careful assessment of operational requirements, budget constraints, and geographical operating areas.

LEO (Low Earth Orbit) Satellites


Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites represent a groundbreaking shift in satellite communications, offering significant advantages over traditional geostationary satellites.

These satellites orbit at altitudes typically between 500 and 2,000 kilometers, much closer to

Earth than geostationary satellites that orbit at approximately 35,786 kilometers. This proximity brings unique benefits and challenges, especially for maritime operations.

Low Latency

The closer proximity to Earth significantly reduces signal delay, leading to much faster response times compared to traditional satellite systems.
This is particularly beneficial for applications requiring real-time communication, such as navigation and emergency response.

Developmental Phase

LEO satellite technology is still relatively new and undergoing rapid development.
Early-stage deployments may experience fluctuations in service availability and performance.

Potential for Higher Speeds

The lower latency and advanced technology of LEO satellites enable potentially higher data transfer speeds.
Enhanced bandwidth capabilities can support a broader range of services, including high-definition video streaming and complex data applications.

Increasing Global Coverage

Many companies are deploying LEO satellite constellations, promising near-global coverage.
This expanding coverage aims to provide consistent and reliable connectivity, even in remote oceanic regions.

Infrastructure and Cost Considerations

Requires a network of ground stations for optimal performance, which are still being developed.
Initial investment in LEO technology can be higher than traditional satellite systems.

Early Adopters

Ideal for maritime operators willing to invest in and trial the latest communication technologies.

Vessels equipped with advanced communication and navigation systems can fully leverage the benefits of LEO satellites.

Vessels Operating in LEO-Covered Areas

As the LEO network expands, it will become increasingly suitable for vessels operating in areas currently covered by these satellites.

Particularly beneficial for vessels operating in high latitudes or other areas where geostationary satellite signals are weak or non-existent.

LEO satellites offer a promising future for maritime communications with their low latency, increasing global coverage, and potential for high-speed data transfer. While still in the developmental phase, they represent a significant advancement in satellite technology.

Maritime operators who are early adopters and those operating in areas already covered by LEO networks stand to benefit the most from this technology. As the network of LEO satellites continues to expand, it is expected to become a more viable option for a wider range of maritime operations, offering a level of connectivity that was previously unattainable in many remote oceanic regions.

GEOstationary VSAT


VSAT, or Very Small Aperture Terminal, technology is a key player in maritime communications, providing satellite broadband services to ships around the world.

Using small dish antennas (typically 1.2 to 3.8 meters in diameter), VSAT systems offer two-way satellite internet and telephone communications.

The technology is well-suited for maritime applications where reliable and continuous internet access is crucial.

Consistent Coverage with High-Speed Connection

Offers extensive coverage, including remote oceanic areas, providing a reliable connection far from shore.
Capable of delivering broadband speeds, VSAT supports a wide array of bandwidth-intensive applications.

Ideal for Continuous Internet Access

Provides an ‘always-on’ internet service, crucial for modern shipping operations.
Supports various services like VoIP, video conferencing, and real-time data transfer.

Higher Initial Setup and Operational Costs

The cost of the antenna, below-deck equipment, and installation can be significant.
Monthly service fees for VSAT are generally higher than other communication methods, reflecting the level of service provided.

Weather Susceptibility

Heavy rain can attenuate satellite signals, leading to temporary service degradation or outages.
Advanced systems have built-in features to mitigate rainfade, but these can add to the overall cost.

Commercial Shipping

Essential for ships that require reliable communication for navigation, safety, and cargo management.
Enables crew members to stay connected with their families and access entertainment, improving morale on long voyages.

Vessels Requiring Robust Global Connectivity

On Luxury Yachts and Cruise Ships: For providing high-quality internet access to passengers.
On Research Vessels: Essential for transmitting large amounts of scientific data and maintaining communication with research teams on land.

Offshore Operations

Particularly beneficial for oil rigs, exploration vessels, and other offshore facilities where traditional communication methods are unfeasible.
Supports mission-critical operations that rely on real-time data and communication.

VSAT technology plays a vital role in the maritime industry, particularly for vessels and operations that require consistent, high-speed, and global connectivity. While it comes with higher initial and operational costs, the benefits of reliable communication in remote areas are significant.

The technology is particularly well-suited for commercial shipping, offshore operations, and vessels that prioritize robust connectivity. As maritime operations continue to evolve with more reliance on digital solutions, the role of VSAT in ensuring seamless global communication is likely to grow further.

  • Frequency Bands:
    • C-Band: Offers lower bandwidth capacity but is less prone to rainfade. Requires larger antennas usually with a parabola diameter of 2m and more, making it less suitable for smaller vessels.
    • Ku-Band: A balance between performance and equipment size (60 – 240cm parabola diameter). It’s more affected by weather conditions but is widely used due to its availability and cost-effectiveness.
    • Ka-Band: Offers higher bandwidth and smaller equipment (60 – 150cm parabola diameter) but is more susceptible to weather disturbances.

L-Band & GMDSS


L-Band satellite communications play a pivotal role in the maritime industry, particularly in scenarios requiring widespread coverage, including remote and challenging environments.

Operating in the 1 to 2 GHz range of the radio frequency spectrum, L-Band systems are known for their reliability and extensive coverage, albeit with certain limitations in speed and cost.

Widest Coverage Including Polar Regions

L-Band systems provide near-global coverage, extending to the polar regions, which is a significant advantage for vessels operating in these extreme latitudes.
They are less susceptible to signal blockage by mountains or buildings, making them reliable in varied geographical settings.

Reliable Albeit at Lower Speeds

Offers a steady and dependable communication link, crucial for safety and operational purposes.
L-Band frequencies are less affected by rain fade and other atmospheric conditions compared to higher frequency bands.

Higher Costs

The cost of using L-Band services is generally higher due to the technology and infrastructure involved.
The initial investment in hardware can be substantial.

Long-term Contracts

Service providers often require long-term contracts, which may not be ideal for operators with changing communication needs.
This can limit the flexibility for vessels to switch to different communication solutions based on evolving requirements.

Slower Speeds Compared to Other Satellite Options

L-Band systems offer lower data transmission speeds, which may not be sufficient for bandwidth-intensive applications.
This speed limitation can affect the ability to transmit large files or use high-definition video services.

Vessels Traveling in Extreme Latitudes

Ideal for vessels operating in the Arctic and Antarctic, where other satellite systems have limited reach.
Suitable for research vessels and icebreakers that require reliable communication in these regions.

Emergency Communications

L-Band systems are often used for distress signaling and emergency communications due to their reliability.
Acts as a critical backup communication system in case of failure of primary communication methods.

L-Band satellite communications are an essential component of maritime operations, particularly for vessels operating in extreme latitudes and those requiring reliable emergency communication systems.

While offering the widest coverage and high reliability, the trade-offs include higher costs, long-term contractual commitments, and slower data speeds.

For operations where these constraints are acceptable, and the need for dependable, far-reaching coverage is paramount, L-Band systems present a viable and often necessary choice. Their role in ensuring safety and operational continuity in remote and challenging maritime environments is invaluable.

Managing Connectivity Onboard

Effective management is crucial

Bandwidth Management
It’s important to prioritize critical operations like navigation and communication over less critical uses like entertainment.

Data Policies
Implementing fair usage policies can help manage the data consumption of crew members, ensuring that bandwidth is used effectively.

Link Management
For vessels using multiple connectivity options, intelligent link management systems can switch between connections (e.g., VSAT, L-Band/MSS, LEO, or terrestrial networks) based on cost, availability, and quality of service.

Future Trends and Considerations

The maritime internet landscape is continuously evolving. The expansion of LEO networks is particularly exciting, with the potential to offer high-speed, low-latency connections at competitive prices. However, the stability and global availability of these services are still under development.

Choosing the right internet solution requires a careful evaluation of your vessel’s operational needs, budget, and the routes it frequents.

While VSAT provides a good balance of coverage and speed for most maritime operations, L-Band/MSS remains critical for extreme latitude navigation. LEO satellites offer a promising future, but their current state of development may not meet all operational needs.

In the dynamic and challenging environment of maritime operations, staying connected is about ensuring safety, operational efficiency, and crew welfare. The right choice of maritime internet solution is a pivotal decision in achieving these goals.

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